Facial Feminization (FFS)
Glossary of Relevant Terms




Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) - Set of disorders of sexual differentiation resulting from mutations of the gene encoding the androgen receptor

Androgen - Generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics

Autogynephilia - A behavioral model proposed in 1989 by Ray Blanchard as an attempt to explain transsexual women (male-to-female transsexuals) who are sexually attracted to women; (from Greek auto (self), gyno (woman) and philia (love)

Breast Augmentation - Enlargement of breasts

Brow - Also known as the forehead; The bony vertical part of the head above the eyes

Brow Bossing - The bone ridge running across the forehead above the eyes

Colovaginoplasty - An operation where a vagina is created by cutting away a section of the colon and used to form a vaginal lining; Also known as colon section

Cross Dresser - Person who enjoys wearing clothes identified with the opposite gender on a temporary basis.

Dorsum - Refers to the back of a body part; The posterior part of a human (or animal) body from the neck to the end of the spine

Dorsum Reduction - Refers to reduction of the back part of the nose

Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS) - an elective surgical procedure that alters a masculine face to create a feminine face

Female to Male Surgery - Usually involves several surgeries including mastectomy, full hysterectomy, closure of the vagina, construction of a neopenis and scrotum. Approximate cost $25,000 to $100,000.

Gender Dysphoria - Psychological term describing the feelings of pain, anguish, and anxiety when gender identity and physical sex do not match

Gender Identity - One's internal sense of being male or female

Gender Identity Disorder - As defined by medical doctors and psychologists, a condition where one who has been assigned a gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex) but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role their respective society prescribes to them.

Gender Reassignment Therapy - an umbrella term for all medical procedures regarding gender reassignment of both transgendered and intersexual people; Also known as sex reassignment surgery or SRS

Hermaphrodites - Born with ovarian and testicular tissues

Intersexed - Those born with ambiguous genitalia

Male to Female Sex Reassignment Surgery - Procedure that turns male features into feminine features. This can include a penis turned inside out to build a vagina, removing the testes, rerouting the urethra, and facial feminization surgery

Maxillofacial Surgery - A regional surgical specialty focusing on the diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases, dysfunction or injury of the mouth, jaws, face, neck and associated regions; Also known as Oral Surgery

Nasal - Refers to the nose

Orchiectomy - Any action, surgical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes

Osteotomy - Surgical operation that shortens, lengthens, or changes bone alignment

Penile Inversion - Surgical procedure used in genital reassignment to construct a neo-vagina from a penis for transwomen or intersex people

Penectomy - Removal of the penis

Resection - Surgical removal of all or part of an organ, tissue, or structure

Scalp - Skin on the head from which hair grows

Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) - Surgical pocedures that change one’s physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics to the other sex; Part a treatment for gender identity disorder in transsexual and transgender people

Sex Reassignment Surgery from Male to Female - Includes surgeries that shape a male body into a body with the appearance of and, as far as possible, the functioning of a female body

Temporal Bones - Situated at the sides and base of the skull. Each consists of five parts: the squama, the petrous, mastoid, and tympanic parts, and the styloid process.

Tracheal Shave - Reduces cartilage in the area of the throat to conform to more feminine dimensions

Transgender - Catch-all term for a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups centered on the full or partial reversal of gender roles; People who question their gender identity that differs from their physical sex. This may include cross dressers, transsexuals, intersexed and others.

Transsexual - A person who establishes a permanent identity with the gender opposite from their assigned (usually at birth) sex. Transsexual men and women make or desire to make a transition from their birth sex to that of the opposite sex, with some type of medical alteration to their body.

Transwoman - Transsexual or transgendered people who were assigned male sex but feel this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves

Vaginoplasty - A surgical procedure incolving constructing or reconstructing a vagina